Hypothesis If the cellular respiration rate of germinating black-eyed peas and non-germinating black-eyed peas is compared then the germinating black-eyed peas will have the higher respiration rate. Background Organisms need some sort of energy to facilitate their growth and development. Usually, this energy is in the form of adenosine triphosphate, or ATP. Cellular respiration is the process that Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Nina R.
We will determine whether or not it is possible to examine the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration under controlled Biology However the process to get this energy is different for plant and animal cells.
Plants cells undergo a process called photosynthesis where light energy from the sun is used to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. For animal cells, the process is known as cellular respiration by which cells break Cellular respiration is the process by which cells harvest the energy stored in food.
It is the intake of oxygen and energy in the form of glucose, and the cells ability to break it down into carbon dioxide, water, and energy required for the body to function. More scientifically, it is a three-step pathway that produces ATP adenosine triphosphate.
The three stages of cellular respiration are: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle AP Biology I Investigation 6 AP Bio: Lab 6 Cellular Respiration Introduction Some knowledge that is needed before performing this lab are as follows: First of all, cellular respiration is the metabolic processes whereby certain organisms obtain energy from organic molecules.
This process includes glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the Electron Transport Chain. Glycolysis is a process that takes place in te cytosol and it oxidizes glucose into two pyruvate.
Hypothesis When the temperature is reduced, cellular respiration will increase.
Measurement Weight the mouse and use soda lime for mouse to perspire. Oxygen was inhaled and carbon dioxide was exhaled.Energy is a basic necessity to life.AP Biology Lab Cellular Respiration. Group 3
Without energy, one- might as well say it- is useless. This is because cells would be incapable of growing, transporting materials needed in parts of the body, and sustaining a body. For these reasons, it is important for an organism to maintain a constant flow of energy. ATP can be easily broken down in catabolic reactions to release free energy that can be used by the cell.
But where does this ATP come from? ATP is created in cells though a process called cellular respiration. In this particular experiment we experimented with aerobic respiration, specifically through a meal worm. This process of breaking down glucose molecules is exergonic, meaning it is spontaneous, as it provides the energy needed to carryout biological processes. The purpose of this lab was to design and perform our own experiment using organisms and manipulating specific factors of their environment in our case the surrounding temperature to increase or decrease the rate of cellular respiration in the worms.
The purpose is also to apply our knowledge learned in class from Chapter 9 to a practical situation and see if this lab leads to anymore questions regarding cellular respiration. In this lab experiment, Michael Downey, Nico Deruiter, and I observed how the change in temperature of an environment affects the respiration of the meal worm. We compared the respiration rates between a meal worm in a cold environment and a meal worm in a relatively hot environment along the side of the respiration with a room-temperature atmosphere.
We hypothesized that both environments which we place the worm in, will increase the amount of respiration, for the agitation which each presents.
The process of our actions is described as follows. First, we placed the worm inside the glass bottle. This served as our controlled experiment.
We repeated this procedure in our uncontrolled experiments, with the exception of the changing of the temperature of the environment. Data regarding the change in carbon dioxide levels were plotted and compared using the Vernier Graphical App. Unfortunately, something wrong has been occurring for me while trying to upload the pdf of the graph of the different experiments, but attached is the links, where one is able to find the graphs which I will be referring to throughout the rest of this page.
In the link above, the graph displays the results for the controlled experiment. For about 2 minutes there seemed to be a decrease in the amount of carbon dioxide being produced. I assume that it was during this period, that the meal worm did not move very much, being that it was in a new environment. The latter seems more plausible. In the link above, the amount of carbon dioxide exhaled is displayed. For about three minutes there is a flat line, where it seems the worm had not been breathing at all.
While watching the meal worm react to this environment, it seemed as if the meal worm had died within those 3 minutes. It laid on its side as if it was, and showed no signs of movement. My group found this this to be very peculiar considering the extremity of the environment which it was placed in. Further analysis of this graph will be explained later in the conclusion. In the uncontrolled experiment 2, right from the start there was a high increase in cellular respiration.
The meal worm in the bottle seemed to be almost in pain I assume it feels paincringing and flopping in the bottle. This increase in heat, may have made it more difficult to keep a consistent breathing.
Overall, the results of the graphs were similar to what my group hypothesized, which is that both the increase and decrease in temperature of the environment would increase the amount of cellular respiration compared to the controlled experiment.
This was true for experiment with the increase in temperature, however was not true for experiment 1 with the involvement of the ice bath. Something interesting observed, was that during experiment 1, the probe showed no increase no decrease in carbon dioxide when placed in the ice bath. Looking at the graph, and the meal worm itself, it seemed as if we may have killed our organism. This being said, once it hit about 3 minutes, the levels in carbon dioxide began to increase, as if it came back to life.Furthermore, at 2 minutes, we can see that the cold temperature resulted in a higher rate of respiration than the room temperature, but we think that this is due to the fact that the sensor was still stabilizing at that point, since the data from a few minutes later follows our predictions.
From the data that we acquired, we can confirm our previous hypothesis that a higher temperature results in a higher rate of respiration and that a lower temperature results in a lower rate of respiration.
We think that this happens because a higher temperature indicates a higher kinetic energy, which means that the particles involved in cellular respiration are moving faster. As a result, more collisions will take place, enabling reactions to take place more frequently.
Furthermore, we noticed that an increase in temperature increased the rate of respiration much more than a decrease in temperature decreased the rate of respiration.
Overall, this experiment demonstrated how higher temperatures increase the rate of respiration and how enzymes have an optimal temperature where they perform best. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account. Notify me of new comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email.
Skip to content Home About. Close the container with the CO2 sensor and stopper. Activate the sensor and let it stabilize for a few minutes. Measure the changes in ppm of CO2 over 10 minutes, recording data values every 2 minutes. Repeat steps in an ice water bath and in a hot water bath. Conclusions: From the data that we acquired, we can confirm our previous hypothesis that a higher temperature results in a higher rate of respiration and that a lower temperature results in a lower rate of respiration.
Share this: Twitter Facebook. Like this: Like Loading Leave a Reply Cancel reply Enter your comment hereIntroduction: Cellular respiration is the release of energy from organic compounds by metabolic chemical oxidation in the mitochondria in each cell. Cellular respiration involves a number of enzyme mediated reactions. There are three ways cellular respiration could be measured.
The consumption of O2 how many moles of O2 are consumed in cellular respiration. Production of CO2 how many moles of CO2 are produced in cellular respiration? In this lab, the volume of O2 consumed by germinating and non-germinating peas at two different temperatures will be measured. P is the pressure of the gas. V is the volume of the gas. R is the gas constant. T is the temperature of the gas in degrees K.
This law tells us several important things about gases. If temperature and pressure are kept constant then the volume of the gas is directly proportional to the number of molecules of the gas.
If the temperature and volume remain constant, then the pressure of the gas changes in direct proportion to the number of molecules of gas. If the number of gas molecules and the temperature remain constant, then the pressure is inversely proportional to the volume.
IF the temperature changes and the number of gas molecules is kept constant, then either pressure or volume or both will change in direct proportion to the temperature. Carbon dioxide is removed so the change in the volume of gas in the respirometer will be directly proportional to the amount of oxygen that is consumed. In the experiment water will move toward the region of lower pressure.
During respiration, oxygen will be consumed and its volume will be reduced to a solid.
The result is a decrease in gas volume within the tube, and a related decrease in pressure in the tube. The respirometer with just the glass beads will allow changes in volume due to changes in atmospheric pressure or temperature changes. Hypothesis: The respirometer with only germinating peas will have a larger consumption of oxygen and will have a larger amount of CO2 that is converted into K2CO3 than the respirometer with beads and dry peas and the respirometer with beads alone.
Materials: The materials used in the lab are as follows: a thermometer, 2 water baths, tap water, masking tape, germinating peas, non-germinating dry peas, mL graduated n cylinder, 6 vials, 6 rubber stoppers, absorbent and non absorbent cotton, KOH, 5 mL syringe, 6 pipettes, ice, and 6 washers.
Observing Cellular Respiration in mealworms
Methods: First, set up both a room temperature 25oC and a 10oC water bath. Make sure you allow time to adjust the temperature in each bath. To obtain a temperature of 10oC add ice to of the baths until the temperature in the bath is 10oC. Next, obtain a mL graduated cylinder and fill it with 50 mL of water. Drop in 25 germinating peas and determine the amount of water that is displaced.
Record the volume of the 25 germinating peas. Then remove these peas and place them on a paper towel. They will be used in respirometer 1. Next, refill the graduated cylinder with 50 mL of water and drop 25 non-germinating peas into it. Then drop glass beads into the respirometer until the volume is equivalent to that of the expanded germinating peas.
Remove the beads and peas. They will be used in respirometer 2.The main point of conducting this lab was to find out if various factors affect the rate of cellular respiration in an animal.
In our case, we used mealworms. In order to measure the rate of respiration, we used a carbon dioxide sensor. Carbon dioxide is an essential product of cellular respiration through the metabolic pathway of oxidizing glucose.
The way we find out the rate of respiration is to watch levels of carbon dioxide inside the tube. If the carbon dioxide levels increased, then the rate of respiration was going up. Based on all of this, my group, Vinay, Mark, Shreyan, and I decided to test the effect of sound wave frequencies on the cellular respiration of mealworms.
Our hypothesis was that sound does matter and the higher frequency the sound, the more it will cause the mealworms to respirate. From collecting data by placing 2 mealworms in a jar with a carbon dioxide sensor on top and connecting it to the Vernier app, we were able to find that compared to a control group where there was no sound playing, a sound with even a lower frequency still makes an impact in the rate of respiration.
A really high pitched sound like a dog whistle caused the mealworms to respirate frequently, causing extremely high carbon dioxide in the bottles. Basically, we concluded that our hypothesis was correct and that using outside factors do affect the rates of respirations on organisms. In this experiment, we wanted to find out what would cause a faster or slower rate of respiration in an animal. The history and theoretical background of this problem is interesting.
Cellular respiration is essential to the cell. Cellular respiration provides the cell with ATP. ATP is an important energy source that keeps the cell functioning. Carbon dioxide is an essential product of cellular respiration. Unlike photosynthesis, in cellular respiration, carbon dioxide is a product through the Krebs Cycle because you need carbon dioxide as a reactant in order to photosynthesize. Many consider photosynthesis and cellular respiration opposites of each other because the reactants of cellular respiration are glucose and oxygen, which are products of photosynthesis.
Therefore, the increase in photosynthesis yields higher oxygen, which fuels cellular respiration. Our goal was to bring cellular respiration to real life by trying to understand what causes a change in the rate of reaction for cellular respiration.
In order to do so, we decided to use a carbon dioxide sensor that can measure the level of carbon dioxide in the bottle we are using for the experiment.
If the carbon dioxide increases steadily, we know the cells are respirating, but if the carbon dioxide is leveling off, then we know that no cellular respiration is occurring.Energy is at the heart of life. Without energy, cells could not grow, transport materials, or maintain order. In most organisms, this steady source of energy is provided by ATP or adenosine triphosphate, a molecule that consists of a nucleotide with three attached phosphate groups.
Cells produce ATP through a process known as cellular respiration. In this process, free energy is transferred from food molecules such as glucose into ATP molecules as glucose is gradually oxidized, releasing energy that is eventually used to attach inorganic phosphate groups to ADP molecules to produce ATP. Cellular respiration consists of substrate-level phosphorylation during glycolysis and Krebs cycle, which occur in the cytoplasm and mitochondrial matrix respectively, and the much more energy-rich oxidative phosphorylation during the electron transport chain, occurring in the mitochondrial inner membrane.
Despite its complexity, cellular respiration can be summarized by the following simple chemical equation:. In this lab, we decided to quantifiably measure the rate of cellular respiration inside a living organism and observe the effect of certain factors on the rate of respiration.
Specifically, we decided to use a carbon dioxide probe to measure the rate at which two mealworms in a closed jar produce carbon dioxide. Since carbon dioxide is produced as a byproduct of cellular respiration, the change in carbon dioxide concentration over time can be used to measure the rate of cellular respiration of the mealworms.
We also decided to study the factors affecting the rate of respiration by asking, what effect, if any, does sound have on the change in CO2 concentrations in the jar with the two mealworms?
We initially hypothesized that sound would increase the rate of respiration because higher sounds are likely to cause the mealworms to move around more, increasing the need for energy.
To begin testing our hypotheses, we took two mealworms and placed them in a large jar. We sealed the jar by inserting a Vernier carbon dioxide probe into the top opening. We then connected the probe to the Vernier Graphical app. For the control case, we then let the jar sit for ten minutes, using Vernier Graphical to measure the carbon dioxide concentration in parts per minute over the ten minute duration.
How Temperature Affects the Rate of Respiration in Mealworms
Next, for the experimental cases, we again took the jar and placed two new, but identically sized mealworms we had to air out the first two and repeated the process of measuring carbon dioxide concentration over ten minutes.
But this time, we used another app to generate a high pitch noise, above the frequency that humans can hear, for the entire ten minutes, keeping the iPad close to the jar. Finally, we repeated the same procedure with two new, identically sized mealworms but played a low pitch noise within the human audible range for the entire ten minutes. Graph showing carbon dioxide concentration ppm vs time for all three cases.
Blue — control. Red — low pitch. Yellow — high pitch.Introduction Cellular respiration is the procedure of changing the chemical energy of organic molecules into a type that can be used by organisms. Glucose may be oxidized completely if an adequate amount of oxygen is present. Carbon dioxide is formed as oxygen is used. The pressure due to C02 might cancel out any change due to the consumption of oxygen. To get rid of this problem, a chemical will be added that will selectively take out C Potassium hydroxide will chemically react with carbon dioxide by the following equation:.
A respirometer is the system used to measure cellular respiration. Pressure changes in the respirometer are directly relative to a change in the amount of gas in the respirometer, as long as the volume and the temperature of the respirometer do not change.
To judge the consumption of oxygen in two different respirometers you must reach equilibrium in both respirometers. A number of physical laws relating to gases are important to the understanding of how the equipment that you will use in this exercise works. Hypothesis In this experiment, the rate of cellular respiration in the germinating peas, in both water baths, will be much higher than that of the beads and non-germinating peas.
The cooler temperatures in the other water bath should cause the rate to be much slower in all three respirometers. Materials A Water bath, thermometer, masking tape, washers, beads, germinating peas, non-germinating peas, beakers, graduated cylinder, ice, paper, and pencil are needed for this lab. Methods Begin the experiment by setting up two water baths, one at room temperature and the other at 10 degrees Celsius. Next, find the volume of germinating peas, non- germinating peas and bead, and beads alone.
Repeat these steps for another set of peas and beads. Assemble the six respirometers, placing enough KOH pellets to cover the bottoms of the respirometers. Put non-absorbent cotton balls in each respirometer above the KOH pellets and then add the peas and beads. Place one set of respirometers in the room temperature water bath and the other set into the 10 degree water bath.
Slightly elevate the respirometers, supporting them with masking tape, for 5 minutes while they equilibrate. Record the data into the table. Data: Questions 1. In this activity, you are investigating both the effect of germination versus non-germination and warm temperature versus cold temperature on respiration rate.
Germinating peas should consume more oxygen than non-germinating peas. Peas germinating at warm temperatures should consume more oxygen than peas germinating at cold temperatures. This activity uses a number of controls. Identify at least three of the control, and describe the purpose of each control. Water baths held at constant temperature Volume of KOH is the equal in every tube Equilibration time is identical for all respirometers. Graph the results from the corrected difference column for the germinating peas and dry peas at both room temperature and 10 degrees Celsius.
Describe and explain the relationship between the amount of oxygen consumed and time. The amount of oxygen consumed was greatest in germinating peas in warm water. The oxygen consumption increased over time in germinating peas. Complete the following table:. Why is it necessary to correct the readings from the peas with the readings from the beads? To show the actual rate at which cellular respiration occurs in the peas.
The beads were the control variable. Explain the effect of germination versus non-germination on peas seed respiration. Germination, the seeds are growing and need to respirate to grow. Explain the results shown in the sample graph in your lab manual.